Friday, May 22, 2020

Mid term case - 9450 Words

Lin21477_ch01_001-020.qxd 8/26/11 2:10 PM Page 1 What Is Statistics? 1 Learning Objectives Goals When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to: LO 1-1 List ways that 1 Organize data into a frequency distribution. statistics is used. FPO LO 1-2 Know the differences 2 Portray a frequency distribution in a histogram, frequency between descriptive and polygon, and cumulative freinferential statistics. quency polygon. LO 1-3 Understand the differ3 Present data a sample and a ences between using such graphical techniques as line population. charts, bar charts, and pie LO 1-4 charts. Explain the difference between qualitative and quantitative variables. LO 1-5 Compare discrete and continuous†¦show more content†¦Why is this so? What are the differences in the statistics courses taught in the Engineering College, the Psychology or Sociology Departments in the Liberal Arts College, and the College of Business? The biggest difference is the examples used. The course content is basically the same. In the College of Business we are interested in such things as profits, hours worked, and wages. Psychologists are interested in test scores, and engineers are interested in how many units are manufactured on a particular machine. However, all three are interested in what is a typical value and how much variation there is in the data. There may also be a difference in the level of mathematics required. An engineering statistics course usually requires calculus. Statistics courses in colleges of business and education usually teach the course at a more applied level. You should be able to handle the mathematics in this text if you have completed high school algebra. So why is statistics required in so many majors? The first reason is that numerical information is everywhere. Look in the newspapers (USA Today), news magazines ( Time, Newsweek, U.S. News and World Report), business magazines (Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes), general interest magazines (People), women’s LO 1-1 List ways that Lin21477_ch01_001-020.qxd 8/26/11 2:10 PM Page 3 3 What Is Statistics? magazines (Ladies Home Journal or Elle), or sportsShow MoreRelatedEssay Mid Term Case1400 Words   |  6 PagesEastern Waves Inc. Case OM 527 Edward Elric Background Eastern Waves Inc. is a steel manufacturing company located in Kuantan, Malaysia. In 2009, Eastern Waves’ cash on hand was 188 ringgits (RM). In the previous year, they had an even lower cash balance of RM188. Without cash, Eastern Waves are unable to purchase raw materials from local raw material suppliers. Eastern currently has a joint venture relationship with Jinan amp; Iron Steel Corp., which enables Eastern to buy scrap steelRead MoreEssay on Mid Term Case Study1244 Words   |  5 PagesMid term case study Problems Lael Matthews is facing an ethical dilemma issue. She need to decide which of three managers to promote. Each manager has their advantage and disadvantage own, and Lael’s superior has his or her own preference and concern as well. Lael have to make a decision that is moral, and hopefully can satisfy all the parties involved. According to the article, â€Å"Thinking Ethically: A Framework for Moral Decision Making†, developed by Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas ShanksRead MoreThe Principle Of The Distributive View Of Equality1643 Words   |  7 Pagesoccur (293). For example, a student who does not study for the mid-term, and at the result, he fails in the mid-term. So, in this case, the failure of his exam is resulted from the bad option luck. In contrast, if the student has studied for the mid-term, and it turns out that he passes the mid-term; this outcome is due to the good option luck. Regardless of the good option luck or the bad option luck scenario, both outcomes of the cases correspond to the student’s decision (decide to study or not)Read MoreAnalysis Of Mid-Term Break1049 Words   |  5 PagesSeamus Heaney wrote the poem Mid-Term Break after the death of his brother who died after a car ran over him. A majority of the author’s poems, including Mid-term Break, start with a memory. Although the deceased was a young boy, the poem presents the funeral sensitively. The title contrasts the actual message in the poem because it gives one a perception that the poem could be about a vacation. The poet uses the title Mid-Term Break to illustrate his broken family. Nevertheless, the title seemsRead MoreInsurance Coverage Case : A Fatal Car Accident1711 Words   |  7 Pagesinsurance coverage case stems from a fatal car accident in Helena. Respondent Joel Powers, while driving his mother’s 1990 Eagle Summit, struck Benjamin Homan while Homan was on a bicycle. Power’s mother insured the 1990 Eagle Summit through Mid-Century Insurance Company (â€Å"Mid-Century†). Powers received a defense pursuant to that policy, and Mid-Century paid the applicable policy limit under Powers’ mother’s policy to the Homan Respondents. Powers also, however, had a separate Mid-Century policy thatRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Tradings889 Word s   |  4 PagesThe two trades that I choose to discuss about are the mid-term and long-term bond. First of all, in terms of CB2020, the trade starts by short selling the bond at t40 at a price of $101 after the news of CPI Index increase and Bank of Canada raises overnight rate. As a higher inflation rate or overnight rate would raise the nominal interest rate as well as the yield of bonds and thus lower the price of bonds. The bond is bought back at t160 at $98.5, which is around the one-year low of the bond.Read MoreEvaluation Of Performance Management Strategy1256 Words   |  6 Pagesbusiness strategy of the company. With the evaluation approach complete, the methods to communicate with employees throughout the performance year are established next. In the case of Motors and More, a mid-term counseling will be completed 6 months prior to the final evaluation. During a mid-term counseling, the employee will be provided with a fair, accurate and realistic assessment on where they are in relation to the goals and objectives that were established for them. All goalsRead More Comparison of Mid-Term Break, The Field Mouse, and On My First Sonne819 Words   |  4 PagesComparison of Mid-Term Break, The Field Mouse, and On My First Sonne The above poems are written by 3 different people and on reading them they seem to be about very different things. But at heart, they are about death and the pain that appears afterwards. Seamus Heaneys Mid-Term Break is a memory of his four-year-old brothers death. Gillian Clarkes The Field Mouse is about death in a political conflict compared to a death in nature. Finally On My First Sonne by Ben Johnson is about theRead MoreMid-Term Examination1003 Words   |  5 PagesIn my social psychology class, there was a recent examination given to the class. It was the mid-term examination. For the mid-term examination, the class was instructed to read chapters 1-6 in the text book. The class was also instructed to study for the exam by reviewing the lecture notes. In this paper I will focus on a few questions I answered incorrectly on my mid-term examination. The exam contained 48 multiple choice questions and two true/false questions. Out of this 50 questions totalRead MoreDevelopment Of Aging Or Mid Life Crisis863 Words   |  4 Pages There will come a time when one has to come to terms of aging or mid-life crisis. According to Weaver (2009) the major psychological changes occur in childhood. The author also noted that Freud also mentioned that all stages of the psychosexual development are also completed in early childhood (pp.69). Freud and Freud also had differences when it referred to coming of age (Weaver, 2009). Jung saw mid-life not as a crisis, but put the emphasis on growth and maturation (pp.70). Most of the clients

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Nike Inc. - 4013 Words

The topic that I have chosen to do a research project on is Nike Inc. I chose to do my research on Nike because I am for one, very much interested in Nike, and secondly I am very interested in Nike s clothing, shoes, and accessory line. br brBasketball players want to be like Mike, but shoe companies want to be like NIKE. NIKE is the worlds #1 company and controls more than 40% of the US athletic shoe market. The company designs and sells shoes for just about every sport, including baseball, volleyball, cheerleading, and wrestling. NIKE also sells Cole Haan dress and casual shoes and a line of athletic wear and equipment, such as hockey sticks, skates, and timepieces. In addition, it operates NIKETOWN shoe and sportswear stores†¦show more content†¦br brAds work on a variety of different levels including, but not limited to, sign typology, paradigmatic meaning, psychological appeals, emotion, roles, values/beliefs, and knowledge. Again, the impact of an ad comes from the interplay between these various aspects of make-up and the reader s own notions about him/herself and the world. br brRubber-soled shoes were first mass-marketed as canvas-top sneakers by U.S. Rubber, with its keds ® in 1917. But the elevation of athletic shoe manufacture to both a science and a fashion was due largely due to Phil Knight and Steve Bowerman of Oregon. br brIn 1958, Phil Knight, a business major a the University of Oregon, and a miler on the track team, shared with his coach, Bill Bowerman, a dissatisfaction with the clumsiness of American running shoes. They formed a company in 1964 to market a lighter and more comfortable shoe designed by Bowerman. In 1968, this company became NIKE, Inc.--- named for the Greek goddess of Victory. At first, Knight and Bowerman sold their shoes in person, at track meets across the Western US. Their company thrived through a classic combination of entrepreneurship and innovation. Bowerman s most memorable technical breakthrough was the optimal traction of the waffle soles he invented by shaping rubber in the waffle iron in his kitchen (1972). Other essential innovations were theShow MoreRelatedCompany Overview: Nike, INC1106 Words   |  4 PagesNike, Inc. is the world’s leading designer, marketer and distributor of athletic footwear, apparel, equipment and accessories for a wide variety of spo rts and fitness activities. NIKE, Inc. sells, distributes and licenses its products in approximately 200 countries around the world. NIKE focuses its products in seven key categories: Running, Basketball, Soccer, Men’s Training, Women’s Training, NIKE Sportswear and Action sports. NIKE sells products through its NIKE Brand and Affiliate Brands (ConverseRead MoreTaking a Look at Nike Inc.974 Words   |  4 PagesBrief Overview Nike, Inc. is a multinational corporation that designs, develops, markets, and sells athletic footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessories for a variety of sports and fitness activities. In 1964, it started its empire as a company that distributed Japanese running shoes, Tiger, in the United States with the name Blue Ribbon Sports in 1964. Nike founders—Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight—had a great coach-student relationship when both were still at University of Oregon; Bowerman wasRead MoreNike Inc. Case Study2161 Words   |  9 PagesNike, Inc. : Case Study in Operations Management MGT 441 Prepared for: Dr. Davidson, Concord University Prepared by: Jeremiah Nelson Johnathan Coleman Emily O’Dell December 4th, 2012 Introduction Low-cost, time-efficient manufacturing of goods is a key feature of a successful production company in today’s competitive global economy. Operations management, often abbreviated in the business world as OM, is defined as â€Å"...the set of activities that creates value in the form of goodsRead MorePrinciples of Marketing: Nike Inc9497 Words   |  38 PagesNike’s pricing Strategies 20 Price versus Promotion Matrix 21 Price versus Quality Matrix 22 Place (Distribution) 23 Nike -Direct Marketing 24 Nike - Indirect Marketing (Wholesalers amp; Retailers) 25 Value added services – Intermediaries 25 Distribution strategies 25 Promotion 26 Nike’s promotional strategies 27 Communication Model 28 SWOT ANALYSIS OF NIKE INCORPORATED 30 Strengths: 30 Strong Brand Image 30 Supplier Diversity 30 High Growth 31 Weakness: 31 Recent SetbacksRead MoreStrategic Analysis of Nike Inc12147 Words   |  49 PagesPositionÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â….p.30 Strategic PlanÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…..p.33 ConclusionÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…...p.38 LIST OF EXHIBITS Sales Trends GraphÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…p.5 Net Income Trends GraphÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â….p.5 Nike Board of Directors TableÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…...p.11 Table of Key Financial RatiosÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…...p.22 Net Income Trend GraphÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â….Â…..p.24 Primary Strategic Match Position ChartÂ…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…..p.30 IndustryRead MoreEssay on NIKE Inc.: Why It Is Such a Leader2547 Words   |  11 Pagesand Phil Knight started Nike Inc. in 1971, formally known as Blue Ribbon Sports. Bill Bowerman was a former track and field coach at the University of Oregon, and Phil Knight was a student-athlete at the University of Oregon. After numerous years of supplying under Blue Ribbon Sports, the two decided to enter the athletic shoe manufacturing business. The first employee of the company was Jeff Johnson, who helped them with branding what is known today as NIKE Inc. NIKE Inc. main headquarters are locatedRead MoreNike : Nike, Inc.1965 Words   |  8 PagesNike, Inc. NIKE, Inc. â€Å"was founded by William Jay Bowerman and Philip H. Knight in 1964 and is headquartered in Beaverton, OR† (Nike, Inc.). NIKE, Inc. concentrates on NIKE Brand and Jordan Brand products divided in seven key categories: Nike sportswear, football, action sports, women and men’s training, basketball and running. The operating segments for its Brand are: North America, China, Japan, Western, Central Eastern Europe and Emerging Markets. Its wholly-owned subsidiaries include ConverseRead MoreNike Inc.: Study of Value Chain Functions and How They Contribute to the Success of Nike.2448 Words   |  10 PagesNike Inc.: Study of value chain functions and how they contribute to the success of Nike. Prepared by Helgi Frimannsson MBA 640A Dr. Norcio 2/19/2007 When Bill Bowerman, a former track-and-field coach at University of Oregon and co-founder of Nike Inc, once said if you have a body, you are an athlete, his words marked the foundation for a future business venture. Built on this quote is Nike ´s mission statement that states: bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in theRead MoreNike And Challenges Of Nike Inc. Essay1349 Words   |  6 PagesSummary Nike was founded in 1972 by Philip Knight and Bill Bowerman. The focus of this report would be an analysis of how Nike’s manages and delivers its service to its customers. It also looks into Nike’s emphasis on its product quality and innovative design to meet the ever changing consumer preferences. By looking at its current strategies that Nike adopt and its appropriateness, this report will provide you a better understanding on how consumer see Nike and challenges that Nike Inc. faces.Read MoreNike, Inc. Strategic Case Study Essay example6087 Words   |  25 PagesForces and Government model analysis 8 2.1.3 Turbulence Model 9 2.2 Internal Analysis 9 3. Strategic directions and strategic objectives 10 3.1 Mission 10 3.2 Strategic objective 11 3.2.1 The financial objective of Nike 11 3.2.2 The non-financial objective of Nike 11 4. Key broad business-level and international strategies 12 4.1 Ansoff’s product and market business level strategies 12 4.2 Miles and Snow’s adaptive strategies 13 4.3 Porter’s competitive business level strategies

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Resource Based View Approach Free Essays

Persuasion Tools Model Kenneth Berrien ‘40s Definition This model helps an individual find the best way to negotiate, by using and recognizing an individuals capabilities and intuition. How does it work? Using a model to see which point an individual stands horizontally represents influencing and vertically represents the intuition needed. For example: one with a low level of intuition but good at influencing it would be best to use logic. We will write a custom essay sample on Resource Based View Approach or any similar topic only for you Order Now Low intuition and poor at influencing, best approach is compromise. Limitations: isky using emotions in negotiations. A clear understanding of the clients is needed. Emotional intelligence, empathy and compassion are skills that people with high levels of these are required to take advantage of, these people can be rare to find. How can these skills be measured? How can each person be assigned a certain quadrant? Good negotiators have a mixture of all of these! Advantages: Provides a clear model tool to seek out with employees possesses which of the quadrants and they can fulfill their role naturally. Good form of management responsibility. Can reap short/long term benefits. Good preparatory skills. Negotiation skills are a good asset and can lend to other areas of life. A useful characteristic! INVESTMENT- SECURING. SALES- SUPPLIERS. EMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT. Link to EQ 1. Knowing emotions 2. Managing emotions 3. Motivating yourself 4. Recognizing and understanding other peoples emotions (empathy). 5. Managing relationships i. e. managing other peoples emotions. Define each quadrant of the model+ examples Logic = Facts, data, computer based models. Use office example Bargaining = high levels of intuition and general intelligence through communication. Use market stall example, or buying goods in china. Compromise = Less skilled negotiators use. Accepting less money to get something you really want. Use time off work. Distributive bargaining: Compromise bargaining, not all negotiations can end in a win-win situation. Win-lose approach! Call up the car garage and work out their monthly target, how much cash they need, what other services they can offer then make a deal that suits both. Integrative bargaining: Both sides fighting over a price, hiding their real positions and aims, like POKER. Fighting over a price of a fixed package of goods or services Evaluation Different industries require different approaches to bargaining. This model is a great way of mapping out person’s skills linked to the negotiation process and linking the two. Comparing integrative negotiation and distributive negotiation = and make own personal judgment in third person. KEY WORDS Translating Confidence influential Exchanging How to cite Resource Based View Approach, Essay examples

Resource Based View Approach Free Essays

Persuasion Tools Model Kenneth Berrien ‘40s Definition This model helps an individual find the best way to negotiate, by using and recognizing an individuals capabilities and intuition. How does it work? Using a model to see which point an individual stands horizontally represents influencing and vertically represents the intuition needed. For example: one with a low level of intuition but good at influencing it would be best to use logic. We will write a custom essay sample on Resource Based View Approach or any similar topic only for you Order Now Low intuition and poor at influencing, best approach is compromise. Limitations: isky using emotions in negotiations. A clear understanding of the clients is needed. Emotional intelligence, empathy and compassion are skills that people with high levels of these are required to take advantage of, these people can be rare to find. How can these skills be measured? How can each person be assigned a certain quadrant? Good negotiators have a mixture of all of these! Advantages: Provides a clear model tool to seek out with employees possesses which of the quadrants and they can fulfill their role naturally. Good form of management responsibility. Can reap short/long term benefits. Good preparatory skills. Negotiation skills are a good asset and can lend to other areas of life. A useful characteristic! INVESTMENT- SECURING. SALES- SUPPLIERS. EMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT. Link to EQ 1. Knowing emotions 2. Managing emotions 3. Motivating yourself 4. Recognizing and understanding other peoples emotions (empathy). 5. Managing relationships i. e. managing other peoples emotions. Define each quadrant of the model+ examples Logic = Facts, data, computer based models. Use office example Bargaining = high levels of intuition and general intelligence through communication. Use market stall example, or buying goods in china. Compromise = Less skilled negotiators use. Accepting less money to get something you really want. Use time off work. Distributive bargaining: Compromise bargaining, not all negotiations can end in a win-win situation. Win-lose approach! Call up the car garage and work out their monthly target, how much cash they need, what other services they can offer then make a deal that suits both. Integrative bargaining: Both sides fighting over a price, hiding their real positions and aims, like POKER. Fighting over a price of a fixed package of goods or services Evaluation Different industries require different approaches to bargaining. This model is a great way of mapping out person’s skills linked to the negotiation process and linking the two. Comparing integrative negotiation and distributive negotiation = and make own personal judgment in third person. KEY WORDS Translating Confidence influential Exchanging How to cite Resource Based View Approach, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

It is the year of 480 and Xerx... free essay sample

It is the year of 480 and Xerxes, King of Persia, leads an army of 5.3 million soldiers against my lacking army of 7,000 men, 300 of which are my own Spartans.1 Many advantages are ours in battle, including unprecedented battle tactics and determination, but even that is not enough to defeat the army of Xerxes. We have no hope of winning, but for honor and glory we must fight to the last man and hope that Greece does not fall into the hands of our enemy. It is the eve of the battle. I lay in my pallet with the words of the Oracle swirling in my mind. The Persian king possesses the might of Zeus and shall not be stopped until either death befalls a Spartan king or Sparta is conquered.2 Those retched words of the Oracle could not be vanquished from my mind. Must I die? Is there not another way for favorable victory? No answers are forthcoming and I can do nothing but wait. We will write a custom essay sample on It is the year of 480 and Xerx or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page We are up before daybreak when a lone, Persian messenger on horseback approaches with a message. My men and I stop eating what very might be our last meal. I take the message from the Persian, break the seal, and read it loudly to my men. Within the message is a polite greeting and words of false flattery that are meant to stroke our egos. Finally, Xerxes finishes the letter with the advice to surrender. Xerxes writes that if we are wise and accept this cowardly, alternate way no harm shall befall a single Grecian. Is this meant to be an insult? I sneer at the Persian who now trembles with fear. How dare the Persians think we are cowards who are so easily wrought with fear that we would even think to surrender. I turn to my men, No, my countrymen, we will not surrender this day nor any day! We shall fight to the last and bring honor and glory to our homeland! Shouts of Greeces honor and the glory of battle ring throughout the troops. One of my officers suggest that we send the head of the messenger to the Persian King to show him what we think of his message. The messenger, whose face has gone as white as that of a ghost, drops to his knees prostrating himself at my feet. I beg of you noble king, do not take my life. I am but a lowly servant and if you will, allow me to live and deliver your return message, begged the disgraced messenger. I laugh at his pitiful state, I wonder, are all Persians so easily terrified as you, little messenger? For if they are, this shall hardly be a fair fight. My men roar with agreement. Looking down at the messenger, I say, Get up you poor excuse of a man and deliver my words to your king. Molon labe (come and take them). 3 With the messenger gone, my men and I now geared ourselves for battle. Not long after organizing the troops in a phalanx formation, the Persians descend on us. The battle continues all day and ends with the death of many Persians but few loss of Grecian lives. I know this first day preludes to a much longer and gruesome battle. We are still doomed to defeat, but, I and my countrymen will die honorable deaths with the knowledge that we will take the lives of many Persians to Hades with us. The next day is much the same as the first. With so many Persians fallen, hope begins to bloom in my heart. Perhaps we shall have a chance at victory. I lay in my pallet, pleased with the outcome of the past two days. Suddenly, an officer bursts into my tent and reports damning news. A traitor has told the Persians of a pass that was left unguarded because of its secrecy. At this point, all hope of victory is crushed and I know defeat is imminent. The Persians have outmaneuvered us and death is at hand. The dawn of the last day of battle comes all too quickly. A council had already been called and all but the Spartans, some Thebans and Thespians have been sent away to live another day. I cheer my men on, A new life awaits us. Tomorrow we dine with full glory in the halls of the gods! Not long into the battle I am struck by an arrow.4 As life flows from my veins, I pray to the gods to save all of Greece. I close my eyes for the final time and embrace the arms of death.Epilogue: Ultimately, the words of the Oracle proved true. The Battle of Thermopylae ended the life of a king, but from it, brought forth a noble legend. The name of Leonidas will go down in history as the name of a great warrior, leader and king.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Philosophy Essay Example

Philosophy Essay Example Philosophy Essay Philosophy Essay GITANJALIIntroduction Gitanjali is the one of the greatest book wich is written by the rabindernath tagore and it was written in bengali and it has been tranlated into english, gitanjali is the collcetion of 103 poems and for this poem tagore won nobel price the word â€Å"gitanjali† is drived from th rood git which means â€Å"git† means songs and â€Å"anjoli†means offerings and thus means â€Å"prayer offering of songs†and rabindernath became first non eropian who won the nobel price. It reflects on the iterrelationships among the poet or speaker, the deity ,and the world. He sometimes seems to be resisting tradional religion and prophetically looking towords a new spirituality. It resembles the poetry of mysticism and ofcouse tagore’s reaction ti the vision of reality. Here he presents the divine as the great affirmation, the fountion of energy, the source of life and death, and also the belief of the vedantic doctrine . In the vedantic doctrin e â€Å"that art thou† tagore expains pretty wll about the human existence in the word and also about the nature. Telling the true beauty about these things. His lyrics like a transparent and they open to us the door of inner spaces abd longing for the divine. Tagore like sufi saint brings out the concept reaching god through music and when i read tagore’s works writings would clearly say about the ocean and and personification of the human life and death.Rabindernath writings It is about full of inspiration and full of color. Gitanjali speaks of birth of life, to the death, nature and man’s quest for answers from god. Be it song or rain, nature or god,each poems disply the simplicity of thoughts. Nuances between god and man’s tributions with are captured beautifully in this book.while one poem describes a person waiting for the temple gates to be opened, the other describes beautifully a womean who is ready and awaiting her lord to come and embarence he r. De- mystifying the joys of trhe naature is also one of the Philosophy Essay Example Philosophy Essay Philosophy Essay Philosophy Currently, the Federal Communications Commission suggested changes have raised mixed reactions in the media. Some oppose the changes while some agree to them. These changes will have several implications on the legal and ethical philosophy in the media. Merges would reduce the number of media owners. The implications include unfair competition in the market. Some of the changes suggested include allowing broadcast stations to reach 45% of the United States market, on the geographical area compared to the current 35%, lifting the ban that allows the media to own more than one station and newspaper (Hirst Harrison, 2007). This changes address deregulation of the media. Part A 1. A disagreement is the failure to convene on an opinion presented by a person or group. An argument, on the other hand, is the presentation of opposing views on a particular subject matter. A formal argument is presented in an ordered series of statements called premises that lead to a conclusion. A disagreement is not a prerequisite for an argument. It does provide an incentive for an argument by giving two differing positions on a subject. An argument may exist to analyze the validity of widely accepted concepts further or for intellectual jousting purposes. The existence of two or more people in an argument is not necessary, but it provides differing views that may further the argument. A single person may take different stances on the same topic. 2. An explanation is a statement or a number of statements aimed at providing a clearer understanding of certain facts. An argument seeks to prove that a certain statement is true based of factual premises. This means the argument purposes to contribute knowledge in a given subject. If two people, A and B, address the issue of whether or not a third person, C is sleepy, they may refer to the fact hat he is dosing. This is an argument based on the premise that C is dosing and people dose when they are sleepy. However, if A and B agree on it, they may what to know why C is dosing and hence propose an explanation that C is exhausted from working in the hot weather. The difference is that they both what to show why a case is true. 3. A deductive argument is one that derives a conclusion from a set of premises that arrive logically at a certain conclusion. It directly links the premises presented with the conclusion. If the premises are true, then it follows that the conclusion is true by logical necessity. Validity is determined by the condition that a conclusion is logically evoked by its premises considering each step of the argument is logical. A deductive argument is valid if and only if a true conclusion is drawn from the premises, whatever they may be. It means that an argument can be valid even though the premises are false. An example of a valid deductive argument: Everyone who eats chips is overweight. James eats chips. Therefore, James is overweight. The first premise is false because there are people who eat chips but are not overweight. The conclusion is true because it is derived from the premises. This is a valid deductive argument. 4. The quality of validity, as far as deductive arguments are concerned, relates the conclusion arrived at to the premises to judge whether true or false. If the conclusion is true based on the premises, then the argument is valid irrespective of whether or not the premises are true. Conversely, inductive arguments only state the probability of a conclusion being true based on the premises put forth. This gives the inductive its quality of strength based on the degree of probability. Another noteworthy difference between the two types of arguments is that, in an inductive argument, the conclusion may be false despite the premises being true. 5. The argument follows the structure: If P, then Q. When Q happens, the conclusion is made that P is true. This is an invalid argument since the conclusion is false. Not all other possibilities have been excluded to the exception of P. As long as the conclusion of a deductive argument is false, the argument is rendered invalid. A counterexample of the given example is: Miami is in the USA. Sam lives in the USA. Therefore, Sam lives in Miami. The above argument is invalid because the conclusion is false even though the premises are true. 6. A dilemma is a problem that offers two solutions, neither of which is desirable. A common example of such a situation is depicted when one encounters a homeless person asking for change: Either the change will help the person or not. Giving them change may lead to dependency. Denying them change may result in them sleeping hungry. Therefore, dependency or hunger will result from giving change. There are several solutions to a dilemma. The analogy of â€Å"being on the horns of the dilemma† is used to refer to the person facing a dilemma as it is akin to facing a charging bull. The outcome – impalement – is undesirable. The first involves grasping the first horn, which means giving the person the change to prevent the risk of them going hungry. Grasping the second horn means denying the person change to prevent dependency. The other option of going between the horns would be to ignore the request for change hence, avoiding both outcomes. Charging the bull involves changing strategy, resulting in a proactive approach to the dilemma. Other solutions to this dilemma can be broached, such as finding employment for the person to provide sustenance and eliminate dependency. 7. The argument is weak because the conclusion of an inductive argument is probabilistic, that is, given certain premises, the conclusion is probable. The given argument is an example of a weak inductive argument. To turn it into a strong inductive argument would entail changing the conclusion drawn from the premises: I have observed five crows today. All five crows were black. Therefore, there is a probability that most crows are black. The change in the framing of the conclusion changes it to a strong inductive statement because chances are that not all crows are black. Five crows are a small number on which to base an argument. They are not a representative of the entire crow population. The argument is strong because the likelihood that the conclusion is true is higher. 8. Modus ponens is an argument form that follows the structure: if P implies Q and P are true, then Q is true. An example is: If it is sunny, then I will go for a swim. It is sunny. Therefore, I will go for a swim. The fallacy ensues from affirming the consequent â€Å"then I will go for a swim† since â€Å"if it is sunny† was not presented as the only sufficient condition of the consequent of the conditional statement. Part B The Apology, correctly Apologia, is a philosophical work that documents Socrates’ trial. The meaning of apologia is a presentation of a case in one’s own defense, which is what Socrates offered the jury and the public that had gathered to take part in his trial. Socrates was accused of being a heretic by not worshiping the deities of that time and misleading the youth in his charge (Plato 2000). As a leading philosopher, Socrates was in charge of the education of the youth of Athens. The people who brought theses charges against him were those slighted by his philosophies. Socrates believed that he was tasked by the gods to enlighten the people of Athens by showing them that the acceptance of ignorance was the beginning of knowledge. As part of his defense, Socrates offered a speech to the Athenians present, seeking to explain his actions from a philosophical standpoint. In his address, he referred to himself as a gadfly poking the lazy horse that was Athens from its slumber. The metaphor referred to Socrates’ calling to investigate on the prevalence of knowledge among the experts on different fields of study. His findings illustrated that those proclaimed experts only pretended to have profound knowledge, but lacked in-depth understanding of their fields of expertise. Socrates went about stirring them into action from the state they had put themselves. The relevance of this metaphor to the role that philosophy to intellectual pursuits is to stir the academicians from a state of contentment with the advances made so far. As a gadfly, philosophy should continuously wake the academicians, ensuring that the inquisition of knowledge is relegated. Philosophy serves to remind that the pursuit of knowledge and understanding should stem from the acceptance of ignorance, contrasted with the arrogance of the Athenians who purported to possess wisdom but on further inquisition by Socrates were proved arrogant in their ignorance. The men in Socrates time were insulted by his inquisitions, which proved their ignorance on matters they professed excellence. Instead of seeing the challenged posed by Socrates’ findings, they were quick to take offence (Plato 2000). The inquiries were viewed as a personal attack by Socrates, and the ‘targets’ instead sought to eliminate Socrates by propagating trumped up charges against him. These charges were proved baseless, but all the same, Socrates was condemned to death. This defensive strategy adopted by the Athenians did not help them in the long term. Constructive criticism is useful to the development of academic fields. As a part of his defense, Socrates mentioned that the unexamined life is not worth living. He referred to his opponents and their objection to his inquiries into their intellectual pursuits. They were opposed to the examination the Socrates carried out into their work and understanding of it. Most were found to lack an understanding of the fields they purported to be experts. Socrates had humiliated them by exposing their ignorance. In their anger, they missed the point of the inquiries Socrates made into their work. An examination of their lives’ work was vital to provide insight into the accomplishments and failures made. This point is relevant to our daily lives. The stocktaking that Socrates mentioned is important to illuminate the advances people make as well as the shortcomings encountered. Organizations carry out this analysis on a regular basis to ensure its survival and growth. This review should not only be restricted to such organizations but also extended to all spheres of life. Without it, there is no account made to the activities carried out on a daily basis. It is philosophically immoral to live a life without introspection, as this is a requirement of any being that possess intelligence and a desire of self-improvement. The only way to ensure constant development and avoid stagnation, such as the lazy horse Socrates described Athens to be, is to set the course of constant introspection and improvement (Plato 2000). As a society and individuals, stagnation arises from arrogance nurtured by perceived excellence. There is so much that the human race is yet to understand; hence, arrogance would be folly. These types of fallacies are cultivated by egos that refuse to accept the limited nature of the human mind verses the limitless universe. There is a lot to be discovered, and even that, which is known, can still be improved. The knowledge of human ignorance is the only key to gain wisdom. Socrates understood the prophecy of the oracle at Delphi to be a riddle as he was considered himself the most ignorant man in Athens. His wisdom, as prophesied by the oracle, lay in his acknowledgement of his ignorance. Socrates was open to learn as opposed to the other distinguished men in Athens who considered themselves masters in their respective fields. Their ignorance lay in their arrogance juxtaposed with Socrates wisdom that lay in his acceptance of ignorance. To truly learn, one must accept the limited knowledge one possess, hence the process of learning will emanate from the quest to eliminate the ignorance. Socrates was a pioneer in the methods used in presentation of arguments. In his trial, the formal arguments he presented served to negate the accusations levied against him by his detractors. He used various methods in his cross-examination of the accusers, for example, Meletus. He backed Meletus into a corner by proving that his allegations of heresy and atheism were unfounded because Meletus accused Socrates of believing in demigods who were sons of gods (Plato 2000). It does not make sense to believe in something but not its progenitor. In his lifetime, Socrates provided philosophies that are still applicable to our lives today and to the future generations.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The Fallacy of Division

The Fallacy of Division In critical thinking, we often come across statements that fall victim to the fallacy of division. This common logical fallacy refers to an attribution placed onto an entire class, assuming that each part has the same property as the whole. These can be physical objects, concepts, or groups of people.   By grouping elements of a whole together and assuming that every piece automatically has a certain attribute, we are often stating a false argument. This falls into the category of a fallacy of grammatical analogy. It can apply to many arguments and statements we make, including the debate over religious beliefs. Explanation The fallacy of division is similar to the fallacy of composition  but in reverse. This fallacy involves someone taking an attribute of a whole or a class and assuming that it must also necessarily be true of each part or member. The fallacy of division takes the form of: X has property P. Therefore, all parts (or members) of X have this property P. Examples and Observations Here are some obvious examples of the Fallacy of Division: The United States is the richest country in the world. Therefore, everyone in the United States must be rich and live well.Because professional sports players are paid outrageous salaries, every professional sports player must be rich.The American judicial system is a fair system. Therefore, the defendant got a fair trial and was not executed unfairly. Just as with the fallacy of composition, it is possible to create similar arguments which are valid. Here are some examples: All dogs are from the canidae family. Therefore, my Doberman is from the canidae family.All men are mortal. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. Why are these last examples valid arguments? The difference is between distributive and collective attributes. Attributes which are shared by all members of a class are called distributive because the attribute is distributed among all members by virtue of being a member. Attributes which are created only by bringing together the right parts in the right way are called collective.  This is because it is an attribute of a collection, rather than of the individuals. These examples will illustrate the difference: Stars are large.Stars are numerous. Each statement modifies the word stars with an attribute. In the first, the attribute large is distributive. It is a quality held by each star individually, regardless of whether it is in a group or not. In the second sentence, the attribute numerous is collective. It is an attribute of the entire group of stars and only exists because of the collection. No individual star can have the attribute numerous. This demonstrates a primary reason why so many arguments like this are fallacious. When we bring things together, they can often result in a whole which has new properties unavailable to the parts individually. This is what is often meant by the phrase the whole is more than the sum of the parts. Just because atoms put together in a certain way constitutes a living dog does not mean that all atoms are living - or that the atoms are themselves dogs, either. In Religion Atheists often encounter the fallacy of division when debating religion and science. Sometimes, they may be guilty of using it themselves: Christianity has done many evil things in its history. Therefore, all Christians are evil and nasty. One common way of using the fallacy of division is known as guilt by association. This is clearly illustrated in the example above. Some nasty characteristic is attributed to an entire group of people - political, ethnic, religious, etc. It is then concluded that some particular member of that group (or every member) should be held responsible for whatever nasty things we have come up with. They are, therefore, labeled guilty due to their association with that group. While its uncommon for atheists to state this particular argument in such a direct manner, many atheists have made similar arguments. If not spoken, its not unusual for atheists to behave as if they believed this argument was true. Here is a slightly more complicated example of the fallacy of division which is often used by creationists: Unless each cell in your brain is capable of consciousness and thinking, then the consciousness and thinking in your brain cannot be explained by matter alone. It doesnt look like the other examples, but it is still the fallacy of division - its just been hidden. We can see it better if we more clearly state the hidden premise: If your (material) brain is capable of consciousness, then each cell of your brain must be capable of consciousness. But we know that each cell of your brain does not possess consciousness. Therefore, your (material) brain itself cannot be the source of your consciousness. This argument presumes that if something is true of the whole, then it must be true of the parts. Because it is not true that each cell in your brain is individually capable of consciousness, the argument concludes that there must be something more involved - something other than material cells.   Consciousness, therefore, must come from something other than the material brain. Otherwise, the argument would lead to a true conclusion. Yet, once we realize that the argument contains a fallacy, we no longer have a reason to assume that consciousness is caused by something else. It would be like using this argument: Unless each part of a car is capable of self-propulsion, then self-propulsion in a car cannot be explained by the material car-parts alone. No intelligent person would ever think to use or accept this argument, but its structurally similar to the consciousness example.